INDIANS AT WORK
Kiamaths Pay Tribute To A Friend
The following resolution of the Klamath Tribe on the death of their friend,
Senator Charles L. McNary, was bound in leather and presented to Mrs. McNary at
the funeral ceremony in Salem, Oregon, on March 3, 1944:
WHEREAS: The Klamath Indians, learning of the death of Senator Charles L.
McNary, immediately and unanimously voted through their Tribal Business Commit-
tee to send a delegation to Salem to express their sympathy and pay tribute to his
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: That we, the undersigned officials of
the Klamath Tribal Business Committee, representing the Klamath Indians of Oregon,
do hereby express our sorrow at his passing and extend our sincere sympathy to his
family and friends.
He was our friend, too. He always had our best interests and welfare at heart.
His many deeds and the Acts and laws he saw proper to have enacted for us are re-
flected upon our rolls forever. The remembrance, too, of his kindness, patience, and
sympathetic understanding will likewise live in our hearts for generations to come.
His sojourn among us was all too short. But he had worked hard. And he grew
We wish him rest and great peace near Fir Cone, his home, which he loved so
Through the executive committee of their Tribal Council the Rosebud Sioux
have expressed by resolution their "sincerest sympathy to the relatives of those men
who died in the crash of an airplane which occurred on the Rosebud Reservation De-
cember 13, 1943/'
"More than 500 members of our Tribe," the resolution continues, "are now
in the armed forces, and this accident emphasizes to our people the daily peril of
those who have been called to active duty. That these men who perished in the ser-
vice of our nation have mingled their blood with the Rosebud soil causes us to attach
a significant honor to their memory.
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: That the above expression be spread upon
therecords of the tribe and copies of this resolution be sent to the military headquar-
ters to be forwarded to the relatives of these men."
Receipt of the resolution has been acknowledged by letters of appreciation
from many relatives of those who died in the crash.
Cover photo by Helen Post
INDIANS AT WORK
Klamaths Pay Tribute to a Friend Inside Front Cover
Blood Brothers Inside Front Cover
Editorial By John Collier. 1
A Bit of Eskimo War Work 5
Conservation of Indian Resources By Walter Woehlke 6
Captain Embarks on the Long Voyage 9
Latin-Americans Enjoy U. S. Indian
Tour By Archie Phinney , 10
Navaho Newspaper and Dictionary . 12
Indian Ned Joins His Forefathers. . 12
Hero of Hill 609 Killed 13
Prayer for the Braves. 13
Rosebud's Tribal Land Enterprise By Eleanor Williams 14
Rare Indian War Collection 17
Menominees Win Suits in Court of Claims 18
Among Recent Books 20
Mission to El Salvador 22
Like an Alger Story 23
Blackfeet Make Health Pilgrimage 23
The Horse Breeding Program at Pine
Ridge By W. O. Roberts 24
The Klawock Nursery School By Josephine Yanachek 26
Blackfeet 4-H Club Girl Wins Trip to Chicago 27
Pomo Basketry Still a Living Art. By Ruth Underhill. . „ 28
Investors in Freedom 30
Health Program of Indian Service 32
Indians in the News 35
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR-OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS- CHICAGO, 54, ILLINOIS.
A News Sheet For INDIANS and the INDIAN SERVICE
VOLUME XI MARCH-APRIL 1944 NUMBER 6
The House of Representatives has voted that the House Indian Committee shall
make an investigation of Indian problems. I urged that this investigation be carried
out. Many parts of the Indian task wait upon legislative solutions. These solutions
are not just matters of a right way and a wrong way. They require the joining of many
minds, and of the legislative mind most of all. Representative O'Connor and Repre-
sentative Mundt stated many of these problems in the debate on the House floor,
March 13, 1944. In the prior hearings on the Mundt Resolution (H. Res. 166) I dwelt
on these problems and some others. Here are a few of them.
The Indian liquor law needs a thorough reconsideration very long overdue.
This reconsideration should be in terms of the varying Indian areas, and in terms of
the principle of local option.
The regulation, perpetuation and increase of wild life on Indian reservations
require legislation. Wild life could be a major economic resource of the tribes. In-
stead, with some important exceptions, it is a vanishing or vanished resource.
The settlement of Indian tribal claims is an enigma confronting Congress.
Yet there is nothing really enigmatical about this issue. It was suggested to the House
Committee (page 51 of the printed hearings) that those claims which are moral rather
than legal ought to be settled in terms of the needs of the living, with such moneys
appropriated, and such uses of the moneys, as will bring the tribe in question to a fair
level of economic and social opportunity. With such a settlement, it was suggested,
the gratuitous Indian services should be equated, and into such a settlement they
should be merged.
Can the guardianship-wardship relation of Indians be better defined by statute?
If Canada can operate the whole of her Indian affairs through a statute about 20 pages
in length and so simple and logical that "he who runs can read," need the United
States continue with thousands of pages of Indian statutes that have to be read in the
light of court decisions rendered at intervals across more than a hundred years? I
cannot expand on this important question in this editorial.
Are there regions of Indian country where the state criminal jurisdiction
should apply? California, for example; the Lake States? Carefully framed legisla-
tion is called for.
The Johnson-O^Malley Act authorizes contracts with states and their subdivi-
sions for Indian service in education, health, social service, and agriculture. The
Act, and contracts based on it, are now some ten years old. How has it worked?
Should the terms of the Act be broadened; should it be employed in still other regions
of Indian country; and should the Act be used to transfer Indian service responsibil-
ities to tribes of Indians?
Should the legislative door be opened to allow tribes not now making use of
the Indian Reorganization Act to vote in referendum and use the Act now if they want
to? Conversely, should tribes now living within the framework of the Act be author-
ized by referendum to pass out from this framework?
These are merely a few examples of legislative Indian problems. Mr. Mundt
and those who with him pressed for the investigation will seek the answers. Indians
and Indian Service will give their best cooperation.
With Superintendent Roberts, of Pine Ridge, now at the Washington Office, I
have been examining the record of the Red Shirt Table Sioux Community. That record
is a trail blazer and a beacon of hope for the Sioux and many other tribes.
In its background island allotment. Then the wholesale selling (by the Gov-
ernment) of heirship lands. Then the collapse of the Sioux cattle industry in World
War I, due to resistless pressure for leasing of the Sioux lands to Whites. Then the
fee-patenting frenzy of the early 1920's. At the end: "All of Red Shirt Table was in
the hands of Whites. . . . The Indians (in the early lQSO'sJwere subsisted on 'rations,'
surplus commodities, WPA."
Here I pass the narrative over to Superintendent Roberts, jotted in longhand
at my request.
"The Reorganization Act became operative on the Pine Ridge Reservation in
1935. The opportunities created by the Act or reaffirmed by it, as an instrument in
planning, were made operative in the summer of 1936.
"The plan of action was based on the belief that there are virile qualities in
the Sioux, and that they can changefrom their ancient ways to modern concepts of so-
cial and economic development. Furthermore, the reorientation necessarily had to
be done without additional outlay of money or added personnel.
"With confidence in the belief that great hope lay in the possibilities of Indian
action or Indian thinking, the forum or town meeting method of study of the questions
and problems of the Table was adopted. The school teacher usually acted as the fo-
rum teacher; sometimes as an adviser and helper in getting information, never as a
director or decider. Shortly the Indians organized with their own chairman and study
committees. Representatives of the various specialties of soil and moisture conser-
vation, extension, and social welfare were invited into the discussion groups, thus
evaluating the potentialities of the range, water, irrigation and manpower. Out of all
these discussions, the Indians decided on a plan of using their lands by stocking the
range, exploration of irrigation possibilities and expanded educational opportunities.
Through the use of credit facilities which the people could muster and by a willing
ness to manage much of the enterprise themselveSj the program of an Indian-owned
and operated livestock and irrigation enterprise was set in motion.
"What capital investment did the Red Shirt Table enterprise require, and what
flowed from this expenditure?
"The total of money invested is $58 ; 800, made up of $38,800 loaned by the
tribe, $8,500 loaned by the local bank and $11,500 of Sioux benefit money. Total bor-
rowing, $47,300. Repaid to date, $30,000.
Photo by Helen Post
f, In addition, 150 head of 'repayment heifers' were supplied, and 30 milk goats.
All the heifers have been repaid.
"in cash and kind, the capitalization of the enterprise involved $63,300.
"The poultry and livestock sales have totaled $60 s 900 in the four years--
$3,000 in 1940, rising to $32,000 in 1943. In addition, all families have supplied their
own tables with eggs and milk.
"The present capital assets are:
Milk Cows 4,000
$86,050 (end quote)
The Red Shirt Table record does its own talking. The land holdings were
pooled. Beyond that base item, the enterprise from start to finish has been self-
liquidating; and a minimum of government personnel has been used. These are the
Sioux Indians, supposedly unthrifty because of their buffalo hunting tradition.
Some of the Sioux tribes of South Dakota have enough land if it be brought into
shape for efficient use. And nearly all of them can equal, given time, the Red Shirt
Table accomplishment. Nor does the Red Shirt Table Record stand alone in the Sioux
I have been reading, in Asia beginning with February, the autobiography of the
eldest son of President Chiang Kai-shek. It really is a series of brief biographies of
his co-workers in South China. Moving and challenging beyond description are these
modest factual narratives, told with the subtlest art. What these people have endured,
what they have dared, in the making of a new China; the huge things they have done
with so little means; and the profound democracy of their thinking and method: every
one of us needs to breathe of that spirit and to have the enduring courage in us re-
newed by that example. It is great with hope for the entire world.
" Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
A Bit Of Eskimo War Work
By Lillian V. Russell
Indian Service Teacher, Hoonah, Alaska
The Shishmaref Village Eskimo women have a definite part in their country's
war program. The skin sewers of this small village, located north and east of Bering
Strait, number between thirty and forty. Since we entered the war, they have manu-
factured 562 pairs of standard army regulation mukluks (fur boots).
The leg-skins of two reindeer are required to furnish enough material for the
tops of one pair of army mukluks. After the deer are killed for food, the legskins
are taken from the animals and prepared for drying, which requires four days. When
dry, the skins for one pair of mukluks can be scraped by an average tanner in one and
The soles for the boots are made from the skin of the large bearded seal, which
is killed for food also. The soles, after being cut to the correct size and shape, are
soaked in water overnight. When the skin is softened to the proper degree, it is
chewed or crimped to fit the shape of the foot. This crimping must be completed as
rapidly as possible so that the skin does not become too dry before it is finished. A
woman with strong teeth can crimp the soles in half a day. There is an art in crimp-
ing, and only those who have had much practice can do an attractive job.
The sewing on one pair of army mukluks, including the making of the sinew
thread, requires an average of five days. That makes an average time of seven to
nine days to produce a pair. The Shishmaref sewers have spent 23,603 hours at the
work, using 4,496 legskins and making 20,232 yards of sinew thread. The same wo-
men have made the mukluks s parkas, and fur pants for the 250 inhabitants of their
village. Such a volume of production requires long hours and seldom do they extin-
guish the lanterns by which they work before one o'clock at night.
This Nome skin sewer
pulls the sinew between
her lips and rolls it a-
gainst her cheek with the
palm of her hand as the
final step in preparing
thread. Photo by George
Conservation Of Indian Resources
From a speech by Walter V. Woehlke,
Chief of the Resources Branch, at the Extension Conference in Chicago, January 10, 1944.
For a number of years geographers and climatologists were measuring changes
of precipitation in central Asia by the beach lines on the Caspian Sea; and from this
observation, which showed a fluctuation in the level of that huge lake during several
thousand years, they had come to the conclusion that there must be a great succession
of cyclical changes in the precipitation of that region, which is considered to be the
nursery of the human race.
Ellsworth Huntington and others attributed the great migration of peoples that
occurred between 3,000 and 1,500 years ago to prolonged dry spells in central Asia
which dried up the water courses and forced the inhabitants to get on the move, but
that particular theory, in the light of new discoveries, has been amended. While the
climatologists, geographers and conservationists still supported the validity of the
cyclical climatic change theory, they reached the conclusion that the migrations of
the peoples were only indirectly the result of a prolonged dry spell; that the direct
cause of this migration was the cumulative result of long continued overstocking and
overgrazing, which had more effect on the ability of the central Asian plains and val-
leys to support the livestock and the people than the drouth itself.
There were recurrent cycles of these drouths and had been for thousands of
years; but scientists figured that the cumulative effect of the overstocking and over-
grazing gave the final push to these great migrations, which forced the Greek tribes
into the Balkan peninsula and produced the incursions of Genghis Khan and Attila, the
Hun, west and east from the plains of central Asia. The migrating hordes of Huns and
Tartars, with their livestock, driven out by drouth and soil erosion, overran the Chi-
nese Empire. They went west, far into France until they were beaten at the Battle of
Tours. So the effect of erosion, as a result of the abuse of the soil, has been far
greater on the history of the human race than we had suspected up to this time.
Now we can see another effect — a similar migration of people in the movement
of the inhabitants of the Dakotas, Oklahoma and the Great Plains states, beginning ten
years ago. That was a miniature migration of the peoples, such as has occurred in
historical and prehistorical times on numerous occasions.
Let us go back 300 years. When we were in Washington I became acquainted
with one of the First Families of Virginia, over across the Potomac. There were
only four surviving representatives of this family. Of the original land grant of about
6,000 acres inArlington County, that had been made to the family in 1728, there were
only about five acres left; and on these acres they had a big, old house in which the
four representatives lived. One of them had been working for the Government for
thirty years, and in addition ran the family home as a summer boarding house. It
was suspected that this family, like so many other FFV's, had ost its vitality, but in
looking at the history of the grant it appears that it was something else that affected
the FFV's and brought them down to the low level in which they are now found. From
the time they began to till that rolling soil and plant tobacco and corn on it, acceler-
ated erosion began its work and resulted in loss of the top soil.
Some eight years ago Hugh Bennett took me down to Charlottesville in south-
western Virginia. There the university had been given a tract of eighty acres of vir-
A small water hole made by the Soil Conservation Service
extends the grazing area for sheep on this Wyoming range
Photo by Soil Conservation Service
gin woodland many years ago. The original forest still stood. Dr. Bennett showed me
that the soil profile within that eighty acres was ten or twelve inches higher than in
all of the surrounding territory. In other words, the whole of the rolling country,
after it had been denuded of the trees and cultivated, had lost its ten inches of top soil
and was now almost bare. Temple forests in China show the same phenomenon, the
trees protecting the top soil which was blown and washed away on all the cultivated
Forest conservation was pretty well-known and accepted by 1906, but the full
importance of maintaining the grass cover was not appreciated until twenty years
later. It was then that the Forest Service in New Mexico made the first distinct ob-
servation of the effect of grazing on high mountain meadows and described the loss of
the soil cover, the resulting gully formation, the underdrainage and the drying-up
of those cienegas. That work led to an analysis of the effect of overgrazing and de-
struction of the vegetation cover on all areas.
Within the Indian Service the conservation movement first gained headway in
1910 when the Division of Forestry and Grazing was instituted; and fortunately right
from the beginning we had in that new service a good many men who realized the im-
portance of proper forest management and the conservation of the brush cover, so
that a number of the Indian forests are of such excellence that it is hard to find a
counterpart, either in the Forest Service or the private or state lands. In that direc-
tion the Indian Service may be very proud of its achievements; but while the Forestry
Good range produces good livestock
Photo by Helen Post
Division was working on the forests, the grazing was handled almost exclusively by
the superintendents, who ignored the conservation factor. They did not know anything
about it. On the San Carlos Apache Reservation, for instance, we had a stocking of
65,000 head of cattle whereas the grazing capacity as determined by our Service eight
or nine years ago was only 28,000 head. On the Navajo Reservation the superinten-
dents pushed more and more livestock onto the available range, with the result that
in 1930 we had a total of over 2 million sheep units on an area which would safely sup-
port not more than 560,000.
I remember that situation quite well because, in the winter of 1932-1933, when
I was an officer of the Indian Defense Association and John Collier was the Executive
Secretary, there happened to be a terrific early snow on the Navajo Reservation, and
we heard yelps of distress and the request from the superintendents that we ship
them more and more feed for the starving sheep that were caught in the snow. John
Collier rushed to Washington and advocated a special appropriation of $150,000 for
the purpose of supplying feed to the starving sheep. He reported that he ran right into
the opposition of the Director of Extension, one A.' C. Cooley, who told him that there
were too many sheep on the reservation at. the time, that this overplus of livestock on
the reservation would ruin the entire raage and eventually, unless it were stopped,
bring about the dispersal of the tribe and the sterilization of the range. Mr. Collier
thought there might be something to that, with the result that he lowered his sights
and was satisfied with an appropriation of $75,000
When the present administration took charge in 1933, Commissioner Collier
and Secretary Ickes became convinced that the greatest problem confronting the ad-
ministration was that of conservation of the soil; and so Secretary Ickes, under the
urgings of Commissioner Collier, made available, out of the Public Works Adminis-
tration funds, large sums of money for conservation work and placed the expenditure
of this money in the hands of the Soil Erosion Service of the Department of the Inte-
rior to which he called Dr. H. H. Bennett as the managing director. Dr. Bennett was
able to awaken the public to the danger of soil erosion when dust storms startled the
nation. This temporary soil erosion service was finally made permanent by law in
1935 and placed in the Department of Agriculture, where it is still functioning. That
particular achievement can be traced largely to the work of Commissioner Collier
and Secretary Ickes, who initiated the whole thing. By indirection, one might say that
Mr. Cooley had a hand in this work when he showed Mr. Collier the error of his ways
in trying to feed the sheep on the overstocked Navajo Reservation.
In my judgment, the greatest of the issues to face in the post-war period will
be that of conservation, not only of the soil but of all of our natural resources, of our
basic raw materials. If we approach the situation statistically we find that during the
last century and a half the population of the world has increased from less than one
billion to 2.3 billion. This population increase has resulted from the creation of an
enormously improved apparatus of production and distribution. If this apparatus is
thrown out of gear only very slightly, terrific results follow, as, for instance, the cur-
rent famine in Bengal where over a million people have starved to death in the last
eight or nine months.
The question of the conservation of resources of all kinds will be the burning
issue in the post-war world when another billion people will be clamoring for that
sort of security which is, or should be, the birthright of every human being. Since
the production of food is the most important aspect of the situation, because, for dec-
ades, at least a billion people in the world have been chronically underfed, we must
see to it that the basis of food production, soil, is preserved, even if the war should
renew the pressure to mine the soil for the immediate increases in production that
are necessary to fill the war demands. We must, by all means and under all circum-
stances, from the long-range viewpoint resist that pressure, and endeavor to pre-
serve the soil resources for future production. If we do not preserve the eight inches
of topsoil, if we allow the reduction in the fertility of this upper crust to continue, we
shall not be doing our duty to the nation or to the cause of democracy. If we will cling
to the idea that we must, under all circumstances, resist pressures and preserve the
soil fertility and the soil itself, I think we shall render the nation a service of utmost
Captain Embarks On The Long Voyage
On February 2 Captain S. T. L. Whitlam, well known to employees in the Alas-
ka Indian Service, died in Seattle at the age of 6B. As master of the motorships North
Star and Boxer of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Captain Whitlam voyaged
for many years to the isolated little settlements along the Arctic Coast of Alaska to
carry government teachers, government employees and supplies for schools and rein-
deer stations to the Far North. Captain Whitlam was known by native traders and
trappers and Alaska business men in towns and villages from Southeastern Alaska to
Point Barrow on the rim of the Alaska Arctic.
Latin-Americans Enjoy U.S.Indian Tour
By Archie Phinney
In the ancient days of Coronado, Spanish- soeaking explorers came to this
country for gold and dominion over a new world. Today they come as scientific men
to explore the ideology, methodology and technology that are applied to work among
Indians in the United States. The Indian Service was host to such a group of Latin-
American technicians, officials, and professional people during the summer of 1943.
Early last year the Indian Service through the National Indian Institute enter-
ed into a general program of the U. S. Government for the development of close cul-
tural relations with Latin-American countries. Participating in this effort also have
been the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, the Department of State,
and the Department of Agriculture.
Thus far twenty specialists from nine Latin-American countries have studied
with the Indian Service. They represent Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guat-
emala, Haiti, Mexico, Panama, Peru. Most of these Latin- American officials and
representatives are persons of Indian descent and hold important positions in the
ministries of their governments. They are specialists in the fields of education and
soil conservation and agronomy, and they studied with interest the entire range of In-
dian Service activities, including our system of administration. While the main field
of the Program's operation has been in the Southwest, certain of the specialists have
visited projects and institutions in California, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Chicago, New
York, and Washington, D. C.
The impressions these visitors from southern countries gained in the United
States include the following:
Professor Max A. Bairon, Director of Indian Education in Bolivia, said, "I
have seen here different approaches and methods in all their social and economic as-
pects. There is much to admire and to adapt to our conditions. I am charmed with
this marvelous country and now I understand better than ever before its spirit of lib-
erty and democracy."
Professor Garcia Cuadrado, Director of Rural Schools in Peru, adds, "I con-
sider it a rare opportunity to be in this great country during the most interesting yet
grimmest circumstances of world history. After visiting different sections of the
country, I see more clearly what the government and the people of the United States
are doing to destroy the enemies of democracy, and how, through their different in-
stitutions, they are seeking to guarantee the welfare of the human race for years to
come. As for me, after my return to Peru, I hope to be a loyal exponent of all I have
seen and felt in this country and to feel that I have joined with other Americans of
North and South America in the great tasks before us."
Dr. Simon Serna, Director of Normal Schools in Mexico, while on a visit to
Haskell Institute in Kansas during the summer teacher training session, said, "This
school meets one's highest expectations. It is a school of a superior type which is
needed so badly in Mexico and it is to be hoped that such schools will become a re-
ality in my own country soon. The school program synthesises the most important
phases of the Indian education problem. It provides for the solution of these problems
and adds aspects related to the wider functions of Indian schools duringthe war crisis."
An Aymara Indian of Peru
Photo by Truman Bailey
On the basis of this year's experience with Latin-American specialists, the
Indian Service believes it would be advantageous to continue its training of Latin-
American technicians. This will depend on our government's future scholarship pro-
gram. The benefits to the Latin Americans of such a program have been indicated.
But it is not a one-sided relationship that should be developed. Not only these coun-
tries should benefit from such an exchange of scholars but equally important will be
our ability to benefit from the work of Latin- American countries. First is the matter
of our understanding the principles and methods of their programs among rural and
Indian populations. Second, we need to extend the horizons of our own thought on the
subject of the position of racial minorities in all the Americas and the colonial world.
The U. S. Indian Service has become inordinately provincial in its concept of Indian
welfare. Too many of us so focus our attention upon the single tribe, upon the local
Indian problem; that we cannot see the Indian minority status in the more important
context of sweeping world changes, or indeed, even in terms of national trends toward
ethnic democracy. It seems very appropriate, therefore, to take as our first step
toward a broader understanding of our problems, a deeper interest in the conditions
within the Latin-American countries.
Navaho Newspaper And Dictionary
Since last August the Navahos have been learning to read a newspaper which
is printed in their own language at the Phoenix Indian School and issued monthly. It
covers world news and is called Adahooniligii, meaning, "Those things in the process
of occurring." With a mimeographed English version, copies are posted in schools,
hospitals, trading posts, and other Navaho gathering places, and it is read with great
interest by the Indians.
Various systems of writing the Navaho language have been developed, but after
much study of the problem, linguists of the Indian Service have decided upon a system
which is deemed practical for governmental publications and for use by laymen gen-
erally. The task of developing this system was begun in 1940 by Robert W„ Young,
language specialist of the Indian Service^ and his assistant, William Morgan, under
the guidance of Dr. Willard W. Beatty, Director of the Division of Education, and
George Boyce, Director of Navaho Schools. The result of their labors is "The Nav-
aho Language," which recently appeared from the Phoenix Indian School press. It
presents the elements of Navaho grammar, together with a dictionary in two parts
containing basic vocabularies of Navaho and English.
Indian Ned Joins His Forefathers
Indian Ned, a full-blood Karok Indian, well known as the oldest person in north-
western California, died recently at his home in Clear Creek, Siskiyou County, at the
age of 116 years. He often told how he first saw white men at the age of 15 while
hunting squirrels with a bow and arrow on the Upper Klamath. It is believed that the
white party was one that was shipwrecked near Trinidad, California, in 1843. The
old man said he thought they were strange wild animals!
To the end, Indian Ned kept his faith in the religion of his forefathers.
Hero Of Hill 609 Killed
It was announced recently that Master
Sergeant Joseph P. Marksman, a hero of the
Tunisian campaign, was killed in action in
Italy on January 10th, 1944.
Sergeant Marksman, a Chippewa In-
dian, whose home was at Odanah, Wisconsin,
joined the National Guard in February 1941
and went overseas during the following Janu-
ary. As a member of the 133d Infantry Regi-
ment, he served in the African and Sicilian
campaigns, and was awarded the Silver Star
for gallantry in action during the attack on
Hill 609 in Tunisia last May. When his pla-
toon commander was killed in that famous bat-
tle, Marksman, in the words of the citation,
"under heavy artillery and machine-gun fire
advanced and immediately took command of
the platoon. While advancing, his weapon was
rendered useless. Without a weapon, he con-
tinued the attack and also the advance in the
final assault. His devotion to duty and leader-
ship assisted greatly in the capture of Hill
In forwarding the Division Command-
er's letter of citation to Sergeant Marksman,
Lt. Col. Carley L. Marshall of the 133d In-
fantry wrote: "The Battalion is honored, and
have you as a member of his command."
Joseph P. Marksman
the Battalion Commander is proud to
Joseph's mother, Mrs. Angeline Rice, lives in Minneapolis. Two of his half-
brothers, Michael J. Couture and John L. Rice, are serving in the Army Air Corps,
the former in New Britain and the latter at Mather Field in California. Sgt. Marks-
man's wife, Eva, and two children survive him.
Prayer For The Braves
In a letter recently received by Superintendent F. A. Gross of Colville Indian
Agency, a plea is made to Indians throughout the country that they join in prayer for
their warriors. The writer of the letter is C. B. Suzen Timentoe, one of the leading
Indians of the Colville Tribe and a member of the Colville Business Council.
the United States," saying:
addresses all men and women that have a medicine power in
Let us red-race pray for our armed youngsters and do
our medicine power dances, to ask the Great Spirit for protection to our braves who
have taken the war path to preserve paleface democracy at the call of the Great White
"Even the white neighbors," the writer continues, "are heavy at heart against
the World War. Together we shall try to win the war."
Rosebud's Tribal Land Enterprise
By Eleanor Williams
Driving over the grass-covered hills of Soulh Dakota, which rise and fall like
the roll of the ocean, I felt, on that bright January day, that the country is as it always
has been; for the ugly scars of erosion, which a few years ago threatened the life
blood of the Dakotas, are not apparent to a layman like myself. Occasionally a grove
of small dark trees dotted the light green lawn of the Rosebud Reservation, and in the
distance a rosy rim of badlands circled the landscape with a regularity that gave a
feeling of oneness and peace in a chaotic world.
Externally one finds few signs of the war on Rosebud except in the return of
soldiers, wounded or on furlough, but a new spirit is in the air. All of the employees
and Indians, with whom I talked on those warm, sunny days, were enthusiastic about
the future, and few failed to mention "TLE," the new agency which has just opened
its doors for business.
Unlike most alphabetical agencies, TLE does not emanate directly from Wash-
ington. For five years the Superintendent, C. R. Whitlock, and members of the tribe
have talked, and thought, and planned the organization of a Tribal Land Enterprise.
Within the last two years, by-laws for TLE have been written and rewritten by the
Rosebud Sioux Tribal Council, and finally in December 1943 they were approved by
the Secretary of the Interior. At meetings, lasting sometimes far into the night, Su-
perintendent Whitlock and tribal leaders, notably George Whirlwind Soldier, the out-
going chairman of TLE*s Board of Directors, have discussed and explained the new
enterprise to small communities on Rosebud.
At aYuipi ceremonial, dedicated to the welfare of theboys in the armed forces,
I heard TLE mentioned in the prayers and discussed at length in the speeches follow-
ing the prayers. This Yuipi ceremonial, led by Mr. Horn Chips, formerly Pine Ridge
Sioux holy man, was held in the Ring Thunder Community, the first on Rosebud to sup-
TLE has followed the Rosebud Sioux boys overseas. (It is the young people
who will reap the benefits of TLE in the future.) Anthony Omaha Boy, a full-blood
convalescing in a North Africa hospital, has forwarded to the Superintendent his ap-
plication for a Certificate of Interest in exchange for his interests in allotted lands.
The applications of Anthony Omaha Boy and of 500 other Rosebud Sioux will
soon be acted upon by the new Board of Directors of TLE and by the land-appraiser
representing the Government and the individual Indian land-owner, Clyde Flynn. In
January 1944, with the inauguration of the new Board of Directors, the first Certifi-
cate of Interest in TLE was issued to Antoine Roubideaux, clerk of the Tribal Council.
Mr. Roubideaux received a Certificate for $284 plus 27 cents in cash.
The passage of the Indian Reorganization Act in 1934 encouraged Indians to
establish local machinery for solving their allotment problem and putting an end to
the fractionation of Indian estates. Although a few tribes have begun the slow process
of adding to their tribal lands and returning allotted lands to tribal status, none has
organized a land business on such a scale as that of the Rosebud Sioux's TLE.
The allotment problem on Rosebud is not as entangled as on several other
reservations, but in a generation or two, it might have become as sorely complicated
as any. Take the case of Antoine Roubideaux, energetic and articulate young leader
.-•• .. . , -
Photo by Helen Post
in tribal affairs. Mr. Roubideaux held an undivided interest in eleven scattered al-
lotments. The value of his interests ranged from 24 cents, representing a 648/130,638
interest in an allotment valued at $480, to $65.57, representing a 6/84 interest in an
allotment valued at $960. The total appraised value of Mr. Roubideaux's interests in
the eleven allotments was $284.27. On paper, Mr. Roubideaux owns $284 worth of
land, but actually he has no land to farm or lease as a unit. Neither will TLE be able
to lease the allotted land on which Mr. Roubideaux held undivided interests until the
other Indians holding individual undivided interests in the eleven allotments exchange
them for a Certificate in TLE. But, in the meantime, TLE has already acquired
enough tribal land for operation and management so that Mr. Roubideaux can exchange
his Certificate for a consolidated tract of land, if he desires to farm or run livestock
himself. If he prefers to retain his Certificate, TLE will pay him a four per cent div-
idend on his $284 investment.
If Mr. Roubideaux chooses to accept an assignment of tribal land, it will never
revert to heirship status. Before accepting the assignment, Mr. Roubideaux must des-
ignate his heir. On applying for a Certificate of Interest in TLE, he was required to
name his heir to the Certificate. If he should have no heir at death, but through pro-
bate his nearest living relatives are designated as heirs, then TLE is authorized to
purchase fractionated interests from them.
The area to be consolidated some day into tribal ownership and management by
TLE extends north, south, east and west from the Agency headquarters. Already a
CERTIFICATE OF INTEREST
This certifies that.;. JS^^S&^VfA^X „ owner of LsL.^.:„ .
"Interests of ($1.00) one dollar each in the Tribal Land Enterprise, a subordinate organization:
of the Rdsfefeud SioSs Tribe, duly, authorized in accordance with provision of the. Constitution
asH the. -Corporate Charter of the Rosebud Siini.Y Tribe and approved by the Secretary of the
-Interior. These interests are entitled to participate in net earnings of the Tribal Land Enterprise
beginning ._ilz. , =i6^<-^...'S=! J ..\. ( 5.y.X_..__ _..^and ar&transffir-able-
only on the books of the Tribal Land Enterprise upon authorizatkag^f
the Secretary of the Interior or his duty authorized representative.
In wirness^'bereor" the Rosebud Sioux Tribe has caused this Certificate to be^'ened by the
authorized officer of the Tribal Land Enterprise, the Superintendent of the Rosebud Indian
Agency and ihz Cotnrmssicuier oi Indian Afiairs or his oHdy authorized re^resentawe. ~
For the t?anuiit«sloner ^J t»dll^ Affairs
" "A s £ J> 'J, :
SupfrirttendttUtt Hysebud IrrdJAit-Affeiicy -
, ■-*^. iw^m ;**"■" "
;. : :k:
nucleus of this projected area has come under TLE management. An educational re-
serve of 4,654.82 acres; just south of the Agency building, has been assigned to TLE
for management by the Government. Also the Tribal Council has turned over to TLE
for management some $31,000 worth of tribal land scattered in small plots over sev-
eral counties of South Dakota. TLE is authorized to exchange this tribal land in out-
lying areas for lands within the area to be consolidated. Already TLE has for man-
agement some 20,000 to 30 s 000 acres of land.
It may require tenor fifty years before the Rosebud Sioux Reservation becomes
a consolidated land area, as it once was, but this does not detract from the immediate
economic advantages TLE offers its members. By intensive land management prac-
tices, TLE expects to realize greater returns onthe lands now being leased and there-
by pay greater dividends than the Government pays the Indian land-owner. The Gov-
ernment charges each Indian a leasing fee of 25 cents, which is eliminated in TLE
transactions. Also the probate fees, which often have eaten up the meager earnings
of Indian estates, are eliminated when an Indian land-owner becomes a member of
TLE and designates his heir.
These economic advantages, although plainly evident and perhaps saving the
Indians from as much as a few dollars to several hundred dollars, do not interest me
as much as the philosophical implications of the new enterprise. The land will pass
from the control of the Federal Government to the control of the local owners. No
longer will it be leased by the Government forester, land agent or farm agent, that
the owner may live in idleness complaining against the Government because his income
grows smaller and smaller. Nor will the petty Indian land-holder be bribed by the
big White cattle-operator to negotiate a Government lease on his land instead of leas-
ing it to a small Indian cattle -operator.
Whereas the Indians have been victims of a system they seemed helpless to
correct, they now can administer their lands- -with the advice and scientific services
of the Federal Government at their disposal, if they so desire- -and if graft and cor-
ruption appear among local Indian leaders, then the Indians can turn them out of of-
fice at elections.
Before I left Rosebud, Antoine Roubideaux said, "The interest and enthusiasm
you see now for TLE don't tell the whole story. For a time, those of us who actively
supported TLE were referred to by somelndians as 'Ex-tom-i.' Literally translated,
'ex-tom-i' means 'spider song' or 'spider dance.' I suppose we were sort of flirting
with death or destiny, as the spider whenhe builds his web, when we tried to persuade
the Indians to' come into TLE. Then when we sent a delegation to Chicago to ask the
Office for a $5,000 appropriation to finance the initial operations of TLE for the pur-
chase of lands and fractionated interests in lands, we were turned down. The Indians
back home said, 'O, yes, TLE.' That means 'tell lie every time.' And there have
been other discouraging factors- -personal rivalries and antagonisms, and even apathy
on the part of some employees to explain TLE to the Indians. But all that is behind
us now, I hope."
Superintendent Whitlock informs me that since the first Certificate was issued
in January, additional invitations have come to himself and tribal leaders to discuss
and explain TLE in community meetings on the Rosebud Reservation. Also new ap-
plications for membership are being received weekly at Agency headquarters. So in
the slow, stumbling way of this American republic, TLE is adding a significant chap-
ter to the curious history of Federal-Indian land relations.
Rare Indian War Collection
The Medill School of Journalism has what is said to be an unique collection of
historical material bearing on the newspaper correspondents who covered the Indian
Wars from 1866 to 1891, thanks to Professor Elmo Watson of that institution. For
some time Professor Watson has been working on a book dealing with newspaper cov-
erage of the wars, and the collection is a by-product of his research.
In an interview published recently by the Evening Northwestern, Professor
Watson said: "Of the outright gifts, probably the most important is the General
George H. Harries Memorial Collection. Harries was an ace reporter for the Wash-
ington Star in the nineties. His collection consists of Indian relics—articles of Sioux
design, costumes, weapons, utensils, etc., — and also some scrapbooks, manuscripts
and interesting maps. These were acquired by Harries while he was serving as cor-
respondent of the Star during the Ghost Dance trouble among the Sioux."
One of the loan collections is that of Mrs. Teresa Dean, an early newspaper
columnist in Chicago, who reported the Ghost Dance uprising in South Dakota for the
Chicago Herald. She is called the only woman Indian War correspondent.
Menominees Win Suits In Court Of Claims
On February 7, 1944, the United States Court of Claims handed down two deci-
sions determining certain claims in favor of the Menominee Tribe of Indians against
the United States. Thus, with another decision handed down in their favor on Decem-
ber 1, 1941, the Menominees have won three legal victories within the last three years.
In the case decided on December 1, 1941, the Court held that the' United States
by treaty of May 12, 1854, had agreed to cede all the lands in ten certain townships to
the Indians, whereas already the United States had conveyed all of the swamp lands
within these townships to the State of Wisconsin. The Court held that the Indians were
therefore entitled to a judgment for the acquisition cost of such swamp lands. The
Court is now in the process of determining what these acquisition costs shall be.
Present indications are that the value will be in excess of $1,500,000.
One of the suits, decided on February 7, 1944, involved the question as to
whether or not the Secretary of the Interior was justified in using certain interest-
bearing funds belonging to the Menominees for the necessary expenses of the tribe,
when non- interest-bearing funds belonging to the tribe were available for the same
purposes. The Court held that under such circumstances the Secretary of the Interior
was required to use non-interest-bearing funds, and that, to the extent the Indians had
lost interest because of the use of interest-bearing funds, the United States was liable.
The jurisdictional act under which the case was prosecuted provided that "At
the trial of said suit the court shall apply, as respects the United States, the same
principles of law as would be applied to an ordinary fiduciary, and shall settle and
determine the rights thereon, both legal and equitable, of said Menominee Tribe against
the United States. . . ." The Court said that this rule of conduct was a proper con-
stitutional exercise of the power of Congress, but that the rule would probably be the
same in the absence of such provision; that the Supreme Court "'has recognized the
distinctive obligation of trust incumbent upon the Government in its dealings with
these dependent and sometimes exploited people."
In the third case the Menominee Tribe alleged that, in 1905, a large blow-
down of timber occurred on the reservation; and that as a result of the Government's
negligence in salvaging this timber, which contained many millions of feet of valuable
lumber, and also because of improvident logging contracts, the amount realized from
the lumber did not repay the plaintiff's expenditures.
The Court held that the allegations of the petition had been sustained by the
plaintiff, and that the Government was liable for the losses that had followed. The
Government, by way of defense, relied on an act of Congress which provided:
"That the Secretary of the Interior be, and he is hereby,
authorized to permit the Business Committee of the Menominee
Tribe of Indians in Wisconsin to cause to be cut into logs and
hauled to suitable places for sawing and cause to be scaled, under
such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, the dead and
down timber. ..."
The contention of the Government was that it should not be liable, because the
Business Committee of the Tribe itself had entered into the contracts for the cutting
of the timber. The Court, however, held that this did not absolve the Government from
"This statute did not amount to an emancipation, pro tanto,
of the plaintiff tribe. The Secretary of the Interior published reg-
ulations concerning the contracts, and required each contract to
be submitted for approval. If the contracts were prejudicial to
the plaintiff's interests, he should not have permitted them to be
made. He had supervision over the performance of the contracts,
and should not have accepted, as performance, the badly done and
unfinished work which he did accept."
Five of these boys are Menominee Indians, 300 of whom are in military service. They
are Bernard Grignon, Herman Gauthier, Gordon Dickie, Dan Waupoose, and Walter Peters.
The sixth sailor is Chauncey Skenandore, an Oneida. Photo by U- S. Navy.
Among Recent Books
BRAVE AGAINST THE ENEMY. By Ann Clark. Sioux version by Emil Afraid of Hawk. Pho-
tographic illustrations by Helen Post. Edited by Willard W. Beatty, Director of the
Education Division, U. S. Indian Service. Paper, 75 cents; cloth, $1.50.
This is the seventh in the Sioux Series of Indian Life Readers written by Miss
Clark and published by the Education Division, U. S. Indian Service, under the editor-
ship of the Director, Mr. Beatty. Like the others of the Series, Brave Against the
Enemy is designed primarily for use in Federal Indian schools, being furnished with
a parallel Sioux version by way of increasing the pupil's knowledge of his native tongue
and instilling a proper respect for it. But this sensitively conceived and quietly told
story of a Sioux boy and his family, living on a reservation in our day of change,
transcends its original purpose and qualifies as literature in its revelation of Indian
consciousness. It might greatly profit most adult white folk, not necessarily exclud-
ing statesmen, to find a reading lesson here.
The past, the present, and the future of a people coexist in the Hollow Horn
family. For Black Buffalo, the grandfather, there is only memory, saddened by an
unfailing faith in the good old ways. "He had teethed on the bones of the unconquered
buffalo. . . . , but these young men ate only meat that stank with the despair of cap-
tivity. Ate and grew fat and died, never having lived." Joe and Marie, the father and
mother, midway in the perplexing time of transition, look backward with a vague, nos-
talgic longing and forward with a hesitating hope. The boy, Louie, schooled in the new
ways, yet revering and loving his grandfather, faces the new day with wide eager eyes
washed clear with tears at last. There is drama here, but not of the obvious sort,
growing, as it does, out of the boy's inner conflict between two world-views; and in
the end it is the old one that energizes the new with the ancient courage.
The moving climax is reached when Black Buffalo dies, and Louie faces an an-
cient obligation — to give away his most precious possession in keeping with the cus-
tom of the dear one who is dead. But his precious cow is more than a cow; she is a
symbol of the future and the seed of a great dream, for Louie has set his heart upon
the building of a cattle herd.
It is the old man's teaching remembered that decides the issue. "Brave
against the enemy, brave in the acceptance of inevitable change/' the boy makes his
decision and goes forward into the new day, armed with the courage of his grand-
fathers teaching-- "courage, the only weapon that never rusts."
There are numerous lovely and revealing passages that deserve re-reading
and Miss Clark's ability in creating essential mood and atmosphere is exceptional.
AMERICAN COUNTERPOINT. By Alexander Alland. The John Day Co., New York, 1943.
$3.00. This is an unusual type of book, consisting of excellent photographs, taken by
the author, of Americans who are descended from fifty different nationalities. It is
dedicated "To the immigrants from all over the world who have come to America in
the last three hundred years because of poverty, intolerance, or oppression in their
old countries, and to their descendants." The fine preface was written by Pearl Buck,
who says: "The man who took these pictures was born in Russia, but he is an Amer-
ican. ... He has understood that to find America you have to look into many faces
"Black Buffalo was talking" --from Brave Against the Enemy
Illustrated by Helen Post
of many colors and kinds, . . . But try the test of Americanism--speak the word
FREEDOM to any of them, and the same look comes into their eyes.'' The Women's
Division of the Chicago Round Table of Christians and Jews lists American Counter-
point as one of thirty-two important books every American should read.
INDIANS OF THE PLAINS; By M. R. Harrington. 30 cents. THE NAVAHO. By Frances E.
Watkins. 30 cents. WORLD CROPS DERIVED FROM THE INDIANS. By Edwin F.
Walker. 20£ Published by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles.
Here are the latest issues in the Southwestern Museum leaflets series devoted
to various aspects of Indian life and culture. "Leaflets," as a descriptive term, cer-
tainly errs on the side of modesty, as the first two listed above and several of the 14
previously issued run to 48 pages. All are finely printed on glazed paper and illus-
trated. Written with economy and clarity, they are packed with authoritative informa-
Mission To El Salvador
Mr. David C. Dozier's visit during February
to El Salvador, C. A., where he went as delegate of
our National Indian Institute to study the rural credit
system for Indian farmers in that country, was no-
tably successful, as indicated by a letter received
recently from San Salvador.
During his visit to El Salvador last summer,
Mr. Ernest E. Maes, Secretary of the National Indi-
an Institute, was much impressed with the program
set up there by the Confederation of Rural Credit
Funds. This cooperative society furnishes credit to
small land operators by means of a revolving fund
made available by the National Mortgage Bank. It also provides a mechanism through
whichgroups of small farmers can act cooperatively in the development of storage fa-
cilities and other activities. In view of the fact that our Indian Service, for several
years, has been greatly interested in developing a self -liquidating agricultural system
for Indian farmers, Mr. Maes felt that someone should be sent to El Salvador for the
purpose of studying the program there in operation.
Mr. David C. Dozier, a young Santa Clara Pueblo Indian, working with the
United Pueblos Agency in Albuquerque and formerly employed by the Farm Security
Administration, was chosen as having ideal qualifications for the mission. He speaks
Spanish fluently and has been one of the most important contributors to the Indian Ser-
vice training program for Latin- Americans. In addition, he is thoroughly acquainted
with our rural credit program and the Farm Security loan program.
How well Mr. Dozier performed his mission is indicated by the following from
a letter to Secretary Maes written by Jorge Sol C, Director of the Confederation of
Rural Credit Funds at San Salvador:
"it gives us especial pleasure to tell you that Mr. Dozier's personal
attributes and his enthusiasm for work in the field of social rehabil-
itation have assured, from the first moment of his arrival, a sym-
pathetic understanding of our problem and effectual collaboration
with the many persons who work in this institution and the affiliated
credit cooperatives. All this has given us additional satisfaction and
pleasure in his visit.
"We have been talking with Mr. Dozier and getting his advice regard-
ing the possibility of introducing the cultivation and use of soybeans
among our rural poor. We have thought that such a project could be
sponsored by our own National Indian Institute and other Salvadoran
institutions interested in social service. Mr. Dozier will communi-
cate with you regarding this matter and I should like to take this op-
portunity of requesting your own aid and cooperation in bringing this
"Once againl should like to express to you our appreciation and sat-
isfaction for the opportunity of collaboration which Mr.Dozier's trip
has made possible."
Mr. Dozier, thirty-two years old, is a graduate of New Mexico State College
in Las Cruces, where he received a Bachelor's degree in agriculture. He has been
with the Indian Service in Albuquerque since August 1941.
In sending Mr. Dozier on this mission, the Institute was fulfilling its function
of developing collaboration among Latin-American countries and our own country in
the solution of Indian problems, "it is anticipated," says Secretary Maes, "that this
Is merely the beginning of a continuing collaboration between the National Indian In-
stitute of the United States and the National Indian Institutes in the Latin- American
Like An Alger Story
The all-out contribution of the Indians of Kansas to the war is illustrated
by the family of Frank Dupuis, three-fourths degree Iowa Indian, Superintendent of
Labor at the 832nd A. A. F. Supply Depot, Topeka, Kansas. Every adult member of
his household of seven is actively furthering the war.
Frank Dupuis' career at the Topeka A. A. F. Supply Depot reads like the sy-
nopsis of a story by Horatio Alger, Jr. Starting in March 1943 as a janitor, he was
made a guard, placed in charge of transportation, then made assistant warehouse su-
perintendent and, finally, Superintendent of Labor in charge of some 800 men and wo-
men, all in the space of less than six months. That an Indian 53 years of age with only
four years of formal education can win such recognition demonstrates personality and
ability of a high order.
Before leaving the Iowa Reservation for war work, Mr. Dupuis was Secretary
of the Executive Committee of the organized Iowa Tribe of Indians.
Blackfeet Make Health Pilgrimage
For the past four years, thanks to the benevolent action of their Tribal Coun-
cil, the old folk among the Blackfeet have been making group pilgrimages to the Hot
Springs located on the Flathead Reservation.
The idea originated with the Chairman of the Council who, having received
many requests for loans from elderly Indians desiring to take the baths, thought it
would be less expensive- -and more enjoyable--if the journey in search of healing
and happiness were made by groups. The Council approving, a house with dormitory
space and facilities for cooking was rented at the Springs, and Government trucks
furnished transportation. The applications of 55 old men and women were approved
the first year.
Since then the old people have looked forward to these pilgrimages, both in
winter and in summer, not only because of the healing properties of the baths and the
good food served, but also because of the happy meetings with the other old folk who
go there. Since tire and gas rationing went into effect, the Council has purchased a
truck for the use of the groups, and all expenses are paid out of tribal funds.
The Horse Breeding Program At Pine Ridge
By W. O. Roberts
According to Sioux mythology, the Oglalas' horses came to them as a gift of
the Great Spirit, fulfilling the prophecies of the great leader, Medicine Root. History
records that there were no horses on the American continent until the Spanish explo-
rations. About 1520, forty or fifty animals of both sexes escaped the invading forces,
ranging northward. As the increase spread over the areas along the Rockies, Cayuse,
Snake, Nez Perce and other Indians learned to capture and tame the young animals,
making them most valuable both in the chase and in war. The Sioux became excellent
riders and valued their horses above any other property.
The effect of the motor age among the Sioux was quite as great as in other
parts of the country. By 1936 the horses on the Pine Ridge Reservation had reached
a point in numbers too low for reasonable economic advantage. Neither the Superin-
tendent at Pine Ridge nor the Indians agreed with the implication of the time, however,
that the horse was a thing of the past. Chief Red Cloud, with a delegation to Wash-
ington in 1937, had asked the Indian Office to assist in restocking Indians with horses,
and the Loafer Camp Horse Association resulted. Peter Dillon and other Indian lead-
ers had asked for horses for the Wanblee and other districts, all pointing to the need
of a thoughtful plan for restoring good horses to the Pine Ridge Indians. Teachers
throughout the reservation thought they saw a good opportunity to use the interest in
horses, though latent in some cases perhaps, as an educative force to implement the
studies in land use, around which the curricula of the reservation schools are devel-
Both Indians and personnel were ready, therefore, when a letter came out to
the agency from the Education Division of the Indian Office asking if the schools could
use $2,000 to buy stock for the Pine Ridge Boarding School as a start in breeding
horses for possible foundation stock at other Indian Service schools, and to provide
the Pine Ridge Indians with a wider opportunity to reestablish their herds.
Personnel and Indians at Pine Ridge had had many discussions about horses.
The subject had also received some attention in the Summer Schools held at Pine
Ridge. Opinion ranged all the way from shires to ponies. Many favored some draft
type, either Belgian or Percheron.
It should be evident that there is no "best" breed of horses; rather each breed
is best for the purposes to which it is adapted. The staff at Pine Ridge inclined to the
Morgans, because they can do a variety of things well. The old Indians remembered
Morgans and recalled many stories of. distance drives and rides, or of some espe-
cially remembered stallion or family mare. Mr. Mathieson, of the Education Staff of
the Indian Office, knew the later Morgans through his relations with the Remount Ser-
vice of the U. S. Army and, more particularly, the Morgan Horse Farm in Vermont
under the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Morgans may be bay, black, sorrel, or grey. The type preferred at Pine Ridge
stands at 15 to 15:2 hands high and will weigh 1025 to 1150 pounds. Some Morgans are
smaller than this and some are larger, but there is a similarity of well- moulded head,
large frank eyes, nicely pointed ears, good legs and feet, well-coupled backs and well-
muscled quarters. For reasons given, the Morgans were selected as the breed most
Photo by Helen Post
likely to revitalize the Indians' interest in the horse industry, and in the spring of 1938
seven Morgan mares and a two-year-old stallion were bought, forming the beginnings
of a pure-bred herd of Morgans. Several mares and stallions of quality have been
added, and now the herd is probably equal to any in the country.
Several Indians have bought young stock from the school increase and are
starting herds of their own. In fact, the Indian interest has grown so much that it has
been necessary to expand tne program greatly. A herd of fine mares and three ex-
cellent stallions, established at the Manderson Reserve under the immediate super-
vision of the Extension Division, already has furnished some breeding stock to the
■*u S° meof , the b °y s ^ the high school have worked out suitable horse needs along
with their cattle associations. Stock-judging, including horses, is a feature each
spring at the high school short course. Teachers are learning how to ride and are
using horses in their community work. Horseback riding is becoming the recreation
of personnel and Indians. Each show night Indian youths ride their horses to the school
as ot old, and the Day Schools are reestablishing the hitching post
The Klawock Nursery School
Information provided by Miss Josephine Yanachek, U. S. Indian Service Field Nurse
Southeastern Alaska is a beehive of activity for at least six weeks every sum-
mer during salmon-canning time, and the village of Klawock, with a normal popula-
tion of four hundred, has two canneries.
Every available person is engaged in some phase of this industry, and even
boys pay social security and income taxes. Women, from sixteen to seventy years of
age, work in the canneries, leaving their little children to roam the streets.
It was this condition, noted by Miss Morgan, Supervisor of Nurses in Alaska,
that suggested the need for a nursery school in Klawock. Members of the Educational
and Medical departments undertook the planning of the project, together with a com-
mittee of five prominent native women of the community. The two canneries were in-
duced to give substantial aid. The local moving picture theater helped by explaining
the proposed program to its audiences, and visits were made to all parents of Kla-
wock by way of inviting them to bring their pre-school children.
The Klawock Nursery School was opened on July 27th last year. U. S. Field
Nurse Josephine Yanachek, aided by two teachers, was in charge, and for seven hours
each day throughout the canning season twenty-two youngsters were given an oppor-
tunity to learn good habits and to enjoy supervised play.
There is ample proof in Miss Yanachek's extended report that the School suc-
cessfully met a real need, and a much larger attendance is expected next summer
when the canning season begins. Often in her account Miss Yanachek unintentionally
reveals the affectionate, as well as professional, care with which the program was
Well planned lunches, regular naps, and group play at the nursery school improved
the health and the social responses of the children. Photos by George Dale
Blackfeet 4-H Club Girl
Wins Trip To Chicago
Unique among the trip-winners at
the National 4-H Club Congress held re-
cently in Chicago was Wilhelma Ruther-
ford, an Indian girl fron>the Blackfeet Res-
ervation, Browning, Montana.
There was tremendous interest in
Wilhelma at the Congress, and the 4-H
Club boys and girls asked, "How did it
happen that a little Indian girl won the trip
for Livestock Demonstrations?"
Wilhelma was born in Heart Butte,
Montana. Her father was a Blackfeet; her
widowed mother is a Crow. Five sisters
have been 4-H Club members. Two sis-
ters are now married, and one is attend-
ing the State University at Missoula. Wil-
helma is a junior in the Browning High
Wilhelma has been a 4-H Club
member for six years. About three years
ago her mother gave each of the daughters
five sheep. A ram was given to the 4-H
Club. Each year the girls sold a few sheep
and at present they have about 20.
Florence and Wilhelma Rutherford vaccinate a lamb
The girls became interested in sheep disease control and vaccinated a thou-
sand head for mouth disease. Mr. Maxwell, farm agent and 4-H Club worker, en-
couraged them and helped in planning a demonstration, "Vaccinating Ewes For Sore
Mouth," which won for Wilhelma and her sister, Florence, the 4-H Club Demonstra-
tion prize for Pondera County, Montana. At Great Falls in the State Contest, Wil-
helma won the first prize in the Red Ribbon Group and the third prize in "judging
Lamb and Wool." During the summer she and her sister, Loretta, won first place
for their demonstration in "Tanning Hides" at the Cut Bank Boarding School Field
Day. Wilhelma also won first place in "judging Hogs, Poultry, Sheep, Beef Cattle and
The contribution of the Blackfeet 4-H Clubs to the National Food For Victory
program has been remarkable. One hundred and thirty-nine members during 1943
produced 12,000 pounds of beef, 6,000 pounds of poultry, 4,200 pounds of lamb, 600
pounds of wool, 11,000 pounds of garden produce, and 13,000 pounds of potatoes. Girls
in cooking and sewing clubs contributed to the welfare of their families by preparing
proper health foods and needed articles of clothing. One thousand pounds of poultry
raised were sold to the Army Air Base at Cut Bank, Montana, which originally con-
tracted to purchase all the poultry produced by club members. When the activities
of the air base were curtailed, necessitating the cancelation of the major portion of
the order, local restaurants and individuals furnished a ready market.
Porno Basketry Still A Living Art
By Ruth Underhill, Ph. D.
The headline exhibition at the San Francisco Museum of Art, this past Decem-
ber, was a collection of baskets from the Porno Indians of California. This was no
digging up of a forgotten craft, for study purposes. The baskets were there on their
merits, as works of art. TheUkiah Indian Women's Club sent representatives to dem-
onstrate the use of the craft today, and the accompanying photograph shows that these
representatives are to have successors.
Pomo basket weavers are famous, even in California, one of the basketry cen-
ters of ancient America. They excelled in the two main techniques of twining and
coiling, whereas most tribes are content with one. Their lattice twining can be fine
and flexible as cloth. The velvety feather mosaic, which covers some of the coiled
baskets, is unique in America.
Ancient Pomo women had need of baskets, for they made no pottery. They
were among the "acorn" Indians who practically lived on the fruit of four or five
species of oak. Women, who were the producers of acorn meal, used some eleven
baskets for gathering acorns, carrying them home, storing, catching the ground meal,
sifting and finally — cooking. Their method was to mix meal and water in a basket so
tightly twined that it might have been a leather bucket. Clean, smooth stones were
heated in the camp fire, rinsed in water and placed in the cooking basket with tongs.
Watchers have been amazed to see how fast the mush boils.
All the "kitchenware" was made in twining. It was a yearlong job for a wom-
an to collect her materials, the willow withes, the pine root, sumac, redbud and sedge.
The cream white and mahoghany red of her twined baskets were natural colors of
withes and bark. The black was made by burying the strands in the earth, covered
with charcoal and willow ash. She wove color designs even in her utility baskets, in
the same spirit which urges a modern housewife to embroider her dish towels. Pomo
women liked an almost modernistic style of white background, with triangles, squares
or diagonals in black or red. The two colors were never mixed.
It was in the coiled baskets that color went rampant. These were the feather-
decked little gems used as gifts and, most often, gifts for the dead. The Pomo dead
were burned, and so were the baskets. There could be no more touching tribute to a
loved one than the months of labor spent on producing one of these works of art, made
only to be destroyed. The coiling stitches were fine as yarn. (Sixty to the inch was
normal, whereas most tribes speak of thirty as fine coiling.) Under each might be
tucked the end of a bird quill. Sometimes a basket had a fringe of black quail plumes
around the rim, interspersed with pendants of abalone shell. Later, pearl buttons
took the place of shell. Sometimes the coiling was completely covered withred wood-
pecker scalps and the brilliant feathers of the yellowhammer. "Sun baskets" the
whites used to call these.
Art lovers owe a debt to the Pomo Indian women who have preserved this ex-
(Information about the San Francisco Museum of Art exhibit was supplied by
Dr. Grace L. McCann Morley and by Miss Mildred E. Van Every, Social Worker at
the Sacramento Indian Agency, California.)
Opposite page: Mrs. Annie Burke demonstrated Fomo basket weaving
at the exhibit. A skilled basket maker herself,
she is training her grandniece in the craft.
Photo, courtesy of Miss Mildred E. Van Every.
Investors In Freedom
At a bond auction sale held in Reliance, Lyman County, South Dakota, on Jan-
uary 15th, the Sioux of the Lower Brule Sub- Agency gave another notable demonstra-
tion of the fine spirit of loyalty with which Indians generally are meeting the present
Mr. Harry T. Scott, Financial Clerk of Lower Brule Sub-Agency and a mem-
ber of the Lyman County War Bond Committee, gives the following account of that
"An announcement was made that a War Bond Auction Sale would be held in
Reliance on the evening of January 15, 1944, and it was requested that the people bring
whatever they could, to be sold to the highest bidder in War Bonds. Some time prior
to this the various Indian women's organizations had been busy makingquilts and gar-
ments in expectation of such a bond sale.
"On the morning of January 15, the Indians began bringing their offerings to
the Agency office in accordance with my request. There were such articles as canned
foods, clothing, fancy quilts, boxes of groceries, chickens, ducks, a fancy glass dish
filled with mixed candies, fruits and nuts. The latter donated by an old timer, Grass
Rope, was sold for $75.00. Tom Berry Big Eagle, an eight-year-old boy, donated his
pet colt with the approval of his father. This contribution brought $925.00 in bonds.
There was one quilt made by the Women's Victory Club which brought a $1,000 bond,
and another made by the St. Mary's Mission which sold for a $500 bond. An old Rose-
bud Indian by the name of Amos Yellow Hawk, who lives at Lower Brule, came into
the office bringing a small sack of peanuts and tobacco. These items probably did
not cost him over 25? , but sold for a $50.00 bond. With tears in his eyes he told the
employee that his donation was not very much, but it was all he could afford. How-
ever, he did have much land and he wanted to give 320 acres to be sold at the bond
sale. When told that this was hardly possible and, furthermore, that it would be best
for him to keep his land, 'Old Amos' went out of the office with tear -filled eyes,
muttering that it was too bad he could not give that which he so willingly would have
given, as he had lots of land and no one to leave it to when he died. The old fellow
was quite sincere in wanting to donate his land for the good of the cause.
"All day long offerings, large and small, were coming into the Agency office,
and by evening we had an automobile and a pickup truck loaded full.
"That evening the donations were put on display in the Reliance High School
building where the sale was held. The contributions by the Lower Brule Indians made
a splendid showing. The total sale amounted to approximately $22,000. Of this over
$10,000 was raised by the donations Lower Brule had contributed."
Recently the Treasury Department awarded its Certificate of Merit to the
Phoenix Indian School for its outstanding success in sponsoring a Bond Pow-wow for
the Third War Loan drive. This was a stirring event as described by Mr. Alvin K.
Warren, Chippewa Indian teacher and Administrative Chairman of the Drive. Four
hundred Indian students of the Maricopa, Apache, Pima, Papago, Hopi, Mohave, Yuma,
Supai, Walapai, Navajo, and Choctaw tribes took part; and four thousand Indian and
white citizens of the Phoenix area were present. The army, the marines, and the
WAC were well represented. Among the guests were Governor Sidney P. Osborne of
Arizona and Mr.G. Warren Spaulding of the Indian Office, Chicago. Dances of various
tribes were presented, and Sara Denny, known as "the Navajo Gene Autry," sang songs
of the Southwest. Bond sales netted $58,117.50.
In the Fourth War Loan drive, the Papago Reservation in Arizona exceeded its
quota by almost 600 per cent, although the state as a whole fell behind, according to
the Tucson Star. Sales to Indians totaled nearly $15>000. Several individual sales
were impressive. For instance, Manuel Puella bought $1050 worth of bonds, and Jose
Rafael invested $3,325.
Another striking instance of the Indian's faith in his country was noted recently
at Window Rock, Arizona, when Eli Smith, a Navajo sheepman, purchased a $1,000
bond at the local post-office. A few days later, he came in again, bringing his two
sons, and bought a $250 bond for each. Not long ago Eli and his sons acquired a tract
of grazing land off the reservation when sheep reduction requirements would have cur-
tailed his operations had he remained. Eli explained that he had been planning to buy
the bonds "ever since he began to hear about our foreign enemies."
Eli Smith exchanges cash for a War Bond
Lt. Bruce Grosbeck, Gros Ventre, and his wife
buy a bond at the Phoenix Pow-wow
Photo, courtesy Alvin Warren.
Health Program Of Indian Service
The following report of Indian Service health activities was presented at the
annual meeting of the State and Provincial Health Authorities of North America held
during the week of March 20 in Washington, D. C:
The United States Indian Service stands unique among Governmental agencies
in the type of medical services available to its beneficiaries. In contradistinction to
agencies such as the Army, Navy, Veterans Administration, and others who treat and
care for people in specific age groups and circumstances, the Indian Service provides
complete medical services, insofar as funds permit, throughout the life of the individ-
ual. The activities of the Health Division include health education, preventive mea-
sures, curative procedures, palliative treatment, rehabilitation, and sanitation as it
applies both to the individual and the community. The practices and procedures de-
veloped in this Service are mainly applicable to any rural community, and the health
problems are common to both. The experience of the Indian Service in rural com-
munity health and sanitation over the period of its existence is of inestimable value
to the field of medicine, public healthy and public health education.
It is an increasing practice to encourage community-wide participation in all
health activities. The past year a number of health councils have been activated
among and by the Indians on a number of reservations. Their activities include meet-
ings with the superintendent of the agency and health personnel to promulgate modern
health programs, study and recommend health legislation to their communities, liai-
son duties between health personnel and the citizens of the communities, acting in an
advisory capacity on health matters to their constituents, and assisting the agency
personnel in developing methods of approach to the people in presenting health poli-
cies and practices which will stimulate interest and bring acceptance rather than re-
sentment and disinterest. In one instance, a salaried board of health, the member-
ship of which is entirely Indian, has been established. Numerous ordinances have
been initiated by these councils and approved by the tribe to control communicable
diseases. The communities, through pressure of the war emergency, are being forced
to take a definite part in all activities affecting their own welfare. This is highly sig-
nificant to the Medical Division in that a critical shortage of physicians, nurses, sub-
professional, and subsidiary employees has developed since the beginning of the war
and has become progressively worse.
The table below shows the number of positions available in the Indian Service
for physicians and nurses and the vacancies existing as of January 1, 1944. Approx-
imately 60 Indian Service physicians have entered the Armed Services. Attempts
have been and are being made to fill these positions; but up to the present time, it has
been impossible to find as replacements individuals with even minimum physical and
professional qualifications. The Indian Service is not a war agency and, as a conse-
quence, there has been a steady progression of health personnel to the Armed Serv-
ices, war agencies, defense activities, and into the more lucrative positions in pri-
vate practice. Recently all physician positions were declared essential by the Pro-
curement and Assignment Service of the War Manpower Commission. However, those
who wish to resign and enter other employment or the Armed Forces are free to do
School girls practice at home the
fundamentals of child care which
they learn in their classes. This
is a student in the home nursing
class in the Indian Service School
at Juneau, Alaska.
To offset in a degree the lack of personnel meeting minimum standards re-
quired under Civil Service Regulations, the Indian Service has been training selected
girls at the Kiowa, Oklahoma, School for Nurses' Aids. The original plan called for
an enrollment of 20 students in 1937. In 1942, arrangements were made to double the
attendance to meet emergency conditions, but more attractive wages and positions of-
fered elsewhere have limited the number of those who have availed themselves of the
The curriculum includes practical nursing, psychology, history of nursing,
ethics, personal hygiene, anatomy, drugs and solutions, diet and disease, and commu-
nicable disease. Graduates are placed in hospitals to assist the nurses in sub-pro-
fessional duties. Indian technicians and orderlies are being trained by Indian Service
physicians and nurses to take the place of those in the Armed Forces and to relieve
medical personnel for more important duties. Another source of sub-professional
personnel has been developed through the use of individuals who have had some train-
ing in nursing schools, but who have not completed the course. Practical nurses also
are being utilized. These people are employed as hospital attendants and are assigned
to duties that do not require the services of a regular nurse.
There were 75 general hospitals and sanatoriums in use in the States (6 in
Alaska) at the end of the fiscal year 1943, making available 3,255 beds for general
cases and 1,237 for the care of the tuberculous. 53,932 patients were admitted to gen-
eral hospitals for a total of 968,993 patient days. Included in these figures were 4,739
cases of tuberculosis, 1,995 being admissions and 2,274 discharges — a total of 393,859
patient days and an average stay of 83 days. In 1942 and 1943, five hospitals were
closed because of low bed utilization and as an economy measure. Two hospitals had
their capacity markedly reduced for similar reasons.
The live births totaled 6,002 (exclusive of Five Civilized Tribes, Oklahoma,
Agency) with an infant mortality of 111 per 1,000 live births, compared with 124 per
1,000 in 1942. Maternal mortality was 8.7 per 1,000. 4,130 births occurred in hos-
pitals and 1,872 elsewhere. The birth rate for the fiscal year 1943 was 22.3 and the
death rate 11.2.
2,232 cases of trachoma were reported by the hospitals. The intensive cam-
paign to control and eradicate trachoma has been progressive. From 1928 to 1939
trachoma was consistently found in about 20% of those examined. Since the discovery
of the therapeutic value of sulfanilamide in the treatment of trachoma, the percentage
had dropped in the period 1939 to 1943 from 18.9% to 4%. The local physicians are
recognizing and treating trachoma and gradually displacing the special physician.
It is planned to keep at least two special physicians in the field to instruct
new appointees of the Indian Service in diagnosing and treating trachoma. It is felt
that this disease may no longer be considered a major problem.
The cooperation of employees, Indian communities, tribal councils and indi-
viduals is urgently necessary if minimum health services are to be maintained with
a limited health staff. Fewer calls for minor illnesses, strict adherence to clinic and
dispensary hours, a minimum of night calls, furnishing drivers for physicians, en-
rollment in classes for first aid and home nursing, less visiting in hospitals, and close
attention to personal hygiene and preventive measures will help maintain good health
Indians In the J\ews
As the result of a forced landing made last winter by a B-17 flying fortress
near the village of Potato Creek, S. D„, the Indian children of Medicine Bow Day School
are enjoying a lively correspondence with youngsters of their own age in Kempton,
111. Mrs. Spence, a teacher at the latter place, is the wife of Lieut. V. E. Spence of
the flying fortress crew, with whose members the Indian children became friendly;
and it was at her suggestion that the exchange of letters began. Lieut. Spence is now
a prisoner of war in Germany, and three of his fellow officers have been killed in
combat over Europe. Oglala Light, March 1944.
Three thousand of 100,000 lambs which Navajo tribesmen owners were unable
to sell last fall s have been marketed at about 8 cents a pound, Superintendent James M.
Stewart of the Navajo agency reports. Marketing of the animals was handled by
"Livestock Disposition Enterprise," a tribal organization. Lack of rainfall on the
Navajo ranges made forage scanty last season, and if the lamb crop of last fall were
not sold the ranges would be heavily overstocked and a serious loss in the 1944 lamb
crop might result. Journal, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 9, 1944.
Roselyn Eagle and Myrtle Fool Bear, two Indian girls of Standing Rock reser-
vation who recently joined the WAC, walked in a sleet storm from Shields to Fort
Yates, a distance of 32 miles, to take their mental examination. They are both high
school graduates and, according to 1st Lt. Margaret Hoke, WAC recruiter, they made
unusually high grades. Tribune , Bismarck, N. D., December 11, 1943.
Hunting Horse, a Kiowa Indian who once served as a scout for Gen. George A.
Custer, recently celebrated his 98th birthday at his home near Mears, Oklahoma. He
was born in Kansas, and at the age of 15 went to southwestern Oklahoma where he
lived on the Washita River. In 1871 he enlisted as a U. S. Army scout at Fort Sill.
Journal-Capital , Pawhuska, Oklahoma, January 14, 1944.
Articles of Seminole craftsmanship are being sold through many chapters of
the D. A. R. in Florida, largest sales being credited to the Everglades chapter in Mi-
ami, with honorable mention going to the chapter at Coral Gables. In February a total
of $1800 was reported to the profit of the Seminoles. In addition, Florida chapters
have contributed to the Indian Nurses' Scholarship Fund, thanks to which eight Indian
girls are now in nurses' training. News , Miami, Fla., February 29, 1944.
According to reports from the Alaska Office of Indian Affairs, the Indians,
Aleuts and Eskimos of Alaska had purchased $161,225 worth of bonds through the Ju-
neau Office at the end of last year. The Daily Alaska Empire , Juneau, Alaska, Janu-
ary 18, 1944.
Miss Verna Wallette, a Chippewa Indian from the Turtle Mountain Reserva-
tion, North Dakota, has been working with the Michigan Tuberculosis Association for
the past two years. During that time she has traveled more than 25,000 miles and
spoken in 1600 schools. Her Indian health legends have been heard by 147,000 Mich-
igan children. She has a degree from Milwaukee State Teachers College, and grad-
uated as a nurse from Hurley Hospital in 1939. Journal, Flint, Michigan, January 6,
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